Automotive Engine, Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Petro Engine
- 1 Definition
- 1.1 History
- 1.2 Internal combustion engines
- 1.3 Also See
- 1.4 Mopar Engines
- 1.4.1 4 Cylinder
- 1.4.2 6 Cylinder
- 1.4.3 V-6
- 1.4.4 I-8
- 1.4.5 Early V-8
- 1.4.6 Small Block
- 22.214.171.124 Polyspherical (A-Engine)
- 126.96.36.199 LA
- 188.8.131.52 Magnum 5.2 L V8
- 184.108.40.206 PowerTech SOHC V8 engine
- 1.4.7 Gen 1 Hemi
- 1.4.8 Wedge Big Block
- 1.4.9 2nd Generation Hemi
- 1.4.10 V-10
- 2 References
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful work.
The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1860 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto (see Otto engine).
The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. Firearms are also a form of internal combustion engine.
In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft, and boats.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like [[biodiesel] for CI (compression ignition) engines and bioethanol or methanol for SI (spark ignition) engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy.
In the early years, steam engines and electric motors were tried, but with limited success. In the 20th century, the internal combustion (ic) engine became dominant. In 2020, the internal combustion engine remains the most widely used but a resurgence of electricity seems likely because of increasing concern about ic engine exhaust gas emissions.
As of 2020, the majority of the cars in the United States are gasoline powered. In the early 1900s, the internal combustion engines faced competition from steam and electric engines. The internal combustion engines of the time was powered by gasoline. Internal combustion engines function with the concept of a piston being pushed by the pressure of a certain explosion. This explosion is burning the hydrocarbon within the cylinder head an engine. Out of all the cars manufactured during the time, only around one fourth are actually considered internal combustion. Within the next couple of years, the internal combustion engine came out to become the most popular automotive engine. Sometime within the 19th century, Rudolf Diesel invented a new form of internal combustion power, using a concept of injecting liquid fuel into air heated solely by compression. This is the predecessor to the modern diesel engine used in automobiles, but more specifically, heavy duty vehicles such as semi-trucks.
Internal combustion engines
Petrol engines quickly became the choice of manufacturers and consumers alike. Despite the rough start, noisy and dirty engine, and the difficult gear shifting, new technologies such as the production line and the advancement of the engine allowed the standard production of the gas automobiles. This is the start, from the invention of the gas automobile in 1876, to the beginning of mass production in the 1890s. Henry Ford's Model T drove down the price of cars to a more affordable price. At the same time, Charles Kettering invented an electric starter, allowing the car to be more efficient than the mechanical starter. The abundance of fuel propelled gas automobiles to be the highly capable and affordable. The demand of gasoline rose from 3 billion barrels in 1919 to around 15 billion in 1929.
An internal combustion engine is a motor that is powered by the expansion of gas which is created by the combustion of hydrocarbon gases fuels. To elaborate, an internal combustion used the heat of a combustion created by the injected hydrocarbon fuel to create mechanical motion. At the time of the early 1900s, wood alcohol was a popular fuel for French and German automobiles, but as governments imposed large taxes on the production, the price of wood alcohol rose above that of gasoline. Gasoline engines became popular as a result of this, as internal combustion engines were commonly known as gasoline engines. Although gasoline engines became popular, they were not particularly desirable due to the dangers of fuel leaks that may cause explosions. Therefore, many inventors attempted to create a kerosene burning engine as a result. This was not a successful venture applying it for automotive usage. There are many different types of fuels for internal combustion engines. These include diesel, gasoline, and ethanol.
Chrysler introduced a straight-four derivative of their new Flathead straight-six]] in 1926. Initially used by Chrysler, the straight-four was fitted to Plymouth and Dodge light trucks beginning in 1929, lasting in production through 1933.
The original version displaced 185.8 cid and produced 38 hp. This was only produced in 1926, with displacement reduced to 170.3 cid for 1927 and 1928. Power was initially rated the same but was upped to 45 hp during the 1928 model year.
After the introduction of the Plymouth brand in 1929, the base engine was enlarged to 175.4 cid with the power rating remaining the same. It also equipped Dodge light trucks in 1929–1930. It was enlarged again to 196.1 cid in 1930 with 48 hp. The engine was slightly revised for 1931 with 56 hp and 1932 with 65 hp for Plymouth only, Dodge continued with the 48 hp from 1931 to 1933. A small-bore version was developed for export markets in 1931, with a narrower bore which brought the RAC rating down from 21 to 15.6 hp. For 1932 the bore was made a little slimmer yet, bringing the tax horsepower rating to just under 15.5.
There were essentially two lines of flathead inline-sixes made by the Chrysler Corporation. Chrysler and DeSoto used a longer 25 inch block with greater cylinder spacing, while Dodge and Plymouth shared a 23 inch block. There is one exception to this: when Chrysler established an engine foundry in Windsor, Canada in 1938, it was decided to only use the long block for all Canadian-built engines. These engines received a trailing "C" in their designation, becoming P8C for example. Thanks to judicious dimensioning, the Canadian 201- and 218-cubic inch engines had nearly identical displacement to their American cousins.
Beginning in 1938, the 201.33 cid inline-six was also used in Massey Harris's Model 101 (later known as the 101 Super). It continued to be used by Massey Tractors until 1940, when it was supplanted by the 217.76 cid which lasted until 1942.
The last automotive use of the Chrysler flathead inline-six was in 1960. It was replaced by the much more efficient OHV Slant-6 the following year, which appeared in most Dodge trucks starting in 1961. The flathead remained in production until the early 1970s for industrial and agricultural use.
The Slant-6 is the popular name for a Chrysler inline-6 internal combustion engine with the cylinder bank inclined at a 30-degree angle from vertical. Introduced in 1959, it was known within Chrysler as the G-engine. It was a clean-sheet design that began production in 1959 at 170 cubic inches (2.8 L) and ended in 2000 at 225 cubic inches (3.7 L).
The Chrysler Slant-6 engine was a clean-sheet design, led by Willem Weertman, later Chrysler's chief engine designer. Its characteristic 30° inclination of cylinder block gives it a lower height overall engine package. This 30° inclination had already been used by Mercedes-Benz in their 300SL sports car with L6 engine since 1952. This enabled vehicle stylists to lower hoodlines, and also made room for the water pump to be mounted with a lateral offset, significantly shortening the engine's overall length. The slanted cylinder block also provides space in the vehicle's engine bay for intake and exhaust manifolds with runners of longer and more nearly equal length compared to the rake- or log-style manifolds typical of other inline engines. The #1 and #6 intake runners are of approximately equal length, the #2 and #5 equal but shorter, and the #3 and #4 equal and shortest. This has the effect of broadening the torque curve for better performance. The Slant-6 manifold configuration gives relatively even distribution of fuel mixture to all cylinders, and presents less flow restriction. This, in turn, provides for relatively good airflow through the engine despite the intake and exhaust ports being on the same side of the head rather than in a crossflow arrangement.
It was introduced in two piston displacement sizes in 1960: The 170 cu in (2.8 L) "LG" (Low-G, referring to the relatively short engine block casting and crankshaft stroke) in the Valiant, and the 225 cu in (3.7 L) "RG" (Raised-G, referring to the relatively tall engine block casting and crankshaft stroke) in full-size Plymouth and Dodge Dart models. In 1960, the engine was called the "30-D Economy Six" engine by Plymouth marketers, referring to the 30° cylinder block angle.
The G-engine was offered in various configurations in the North American market until 1983 in cars, 1987 in trucks, and 1991 for marine, agricultural, and industrial use. Replacement engines were built in Mexico through 2000. The G-engine was used by Chrysler's international operations in locally produced vehicles. It was also purchased by other original equipment manufacturers for installation in commercial vehicles, agricultural and industrial equipment, and boats.
The G-engine gained a reputation for reliability and durability. The basic design is rigid and sturdy, in part because the engine was designed to be made of either iron or aluminum. An aluminum block was produced in 1961–1963, but most blocks were made of iron. The block is of a deep-skirt design, with the crankshaft axis well above the oil pan rails for structural rigidity. Although only four main bearings are used, they are of the same dimensions as those in the 2G (1964–1971) Hemi, and fewer mains results in a crankshaft better able to withstand the effects of torque. Efficient cooling and lubrication systems, a favorable ratio of connecting rod length to stroke, and a forged steel crankshaft (on engines made through mid-1976) all contributed to the engine's strength and durability.
The G-engine gave better performance than its competitors at its 1960 introduction, and generally kept up through the 1960s and early-1970s, though engines like the Pontiac OHC Six, a brief GM outlier, bested the performance of most versions of the Slant-6. After an early factory racing program was discontinued by 1962, the slant-6 did not receive much performance development. Most slant-6s were equipped with a single 1-barrel carburetor. Starting in the early 1970s, primitive emission controls adversely affected driveability and power, though a version of the 2-barrel carburetor package first released for marine and export markets in 1967 was offered in North America from 1977 to 1983 under the "Super Six" name. Performance figures were only slightly higher, but driveability was substantially improved.
Other Chrysler engines were released with more advanced combustion chambers, electronic fuel injection, and other modern improvements, but the length of the slant six precluded its use in Chrysler's front-drive cars. A new 3.9 L (238 cu in) V6 engine was created for the 1986 Dodge Dakota compact pickup truck by removing two cylinders from the corporate 318 cu in (5.2 L) LA V8 engine. It replaced the Slant-6 in the rest of the Dodge truck line at the end of the 1987 model year.
Significant production changes
- The combustion chamber shape was slightly modified for 1967 to promote more complete combustion and reduce exhaust emission toxicity.
- All G engines used forged steel crankshafts until the middle of model year 1976, when a less costly cast-iron crankshaft was introduced. The cast crankshaft uses a different block, different main and connecting rod bearings and different connecting rods.
- The counterbore in the rear flange of the crankshaft was a 1 1⁄4 inches (32 mm) diameter until 1967. For 1968, it was enlarged to 1 1⁄2 inches (38 mm). This difference has implications when swapping engines with automatic transmissions.
- All G-engines used solid valve lifters through the 1980 model year, with the exception of a small production test of hydraulic lifters in the 1978 model year. For model year 1981, all North American G-engines received top-fed hydraulic lifters. Retrofitment in both directions is possible.
- Emission control devices and systems, carburetor make and specification, and engine assembly details changed over the years to comply with market requirements and preferences.
- Electronic ignition, which had been made available on V8 engines late in 1971, was made standard equipment on all engines including the RG in 1973.
- Induction-hardened exhaust valve seats and upgraded exhaust valves were made standard in 1973 to withstand prolonged operation on no-lead fuel.
The 170 engine was offered in model years 1960 through 1969 in North America, and through 1971 for export markets. The first vehicle to offer the 170 slant-6 was the 1960 Valiant. The engine has a bore of 3 2⁄5 in (86.4 mm) and a stroke of 3 1⁄8 in (79.4 mm) for an actual displacement of 170.2 cu in (2.8 L). Connecting rod length is 5.669 in (144.0 mm). The "LG" low-deck block was unique to the 170 engine.
The 198 was introduced in the North American market for model year 1970 as a more powerful base-model engine than the previous 170 engine. The increased displacement gave improved vehicle performance and lower manufacturing cost, for it was achieved with the tall RG block also used with the 225 engine by installing a crankshaft with 3.64 in (92.5 mm) stroke and connecting rods 7.006 in (178.0 mm) long, for an actual displacement of 198.3 cu in (3.2 L). Manufacturing costs were reduced by eliminating using two different blocks for the two different available sizes of slant-6 engine. The 198 engine was available through the 1974 model year.
The 225 used the RG (tall) block with a 3 2⁄5 in (86.4 mm) bore, a 4 1⁄8 in (104.8 mm) stroke and 6.699 in (170.2 mm) connecting rods, for an actual displacement of 224.7 cu in (3.7 L). This undersquare geometry was a departure from the emerging trend towards oversquare engines. It provided strong low-rpm torque characteristics for automobiles and trucks, as well as other commercial and marine applications. The 225 was originally designed and introduced in 1960 for use in full-size models, and it eventually became the best known of the Slant Six engines. Aluminum block 225
Between late model year 1961 and early model year 1963, approximately 52,000 die-cast aluminum RG blocks were produced and installed in passenger cars. These open-deck blocks used integrally cast high-nickel iron cylinder liners, and bolt-in iron upper and lower main bearing caps. Internal components (crank, rods, pistons, etc.) were the same as used in the iron engine, and an iron cylinder head was used with a special copper-asbestos gasket. The aluminum block weighs about 80 lb (36 kg) less than the iron RG block.
Although serviceable examples can still be found, the aluminum RG tended to undergo delamination between the iron cylinder liner and the surrounding aluminum. Severe corrosion within the block is also commonly found because of the general tendency in the 1960s and 1970s to fill cooling systems in summer with plain water without corrosion inhibitors. Moreover, the open-deck design and primitive head gasket technology are not sufficiently robust to withstand the increased seal demands of increased compression or forced induction. High-performance variants
Most G-engines were equipped with small-capacity carburetors (such as the ubiquitous Holley 1920) and exhaust systems adequate for standard passenger car usage at low altitudes, but which tended to hamper maximum available performance at high altitudes, in heavy or race-purpose vehicles and/or where quicker acceleration was desired. To meet the demand for improved responsiveness, modified engine configurations were made available in various markets over the years.
The Hyper Pak was a parts package made available from 1960 through 1962 at Chrysler Corporation dealer parts counters. The parts were made available to comply with the regulations of sanctioning bodies for racing events in which Valiants had been entered by factory-backed teams: All parts used had to be "stock" parts, the definition of which meant that they were available through normal factory parts channels. The Hyper Pak consisted of a very-long-ram intake manifold meant to accept an AFB 4-barrel Carter Carburetor, the AFB carburetor itself and an appropriate air cleaner, dual (front-3 and rear-3) cast-iron exhaust headers, a large-diameter exhaust Y-pipe to connect to these dual cast-iron headers, a larger muffler, a 276°-duration camshaft with appropriate valve springs and pushrods, a heavier-duty clutch, a manual choke control, a starter motor modification template and, in the full-race version of the package, high-compression pistons designed to increase the engine's compression ratio to 10.5 from the stock 8.5. The Hyper Pak was recommended for installation only on vehicles equipped with manual transmissions, for the camshaft was of such characteristics that a high idle speed was required to prevent engine stall-out. The Hyper Pak was primarily intended for competition driving, its road manners involving rough idling and poor cold-engine driveability, a high power band and poor fuel economy. In competition events it proved unbeatable. Eight factory-backed Valiants entered the 1960 NASCAR compact car race at Daytona Beach, and humbled the competition. The Valiants came in first through eighth. After a similar performance the following year, the race was dropped. A high-fidelity reproduction of the Hyper Pak intake manifold was created by Slant-6 builder Doug Dutra in the late 1990s. Subsequently the tooling was sold to a marketer of performance equipment for inline six-cylinder engines.
For the 1965–1968 model years, Chrysler Argentina equipped Valiant GT models with a system of dual 1-barrel Holley RX 7000 A carburetors and other engine specification changes. Claimed output was 180 bhp (182 PS; 134 kW), compared to the single-carburetor version of the engine producing 145 bhp (147 PS; 108 kW) 2-barrel carburetion
Export 2-barrel setup Air cleaner decal from Australian-market 1967–70 2bbl Slant-6 installed on US-market 1976–79 2bbl setup
For the 1967 model year, a 2-barrel carburetor setup was released for export production. This configuration, similar to that found on marine G-engines beginning in 1965, consisted of an iron intake manifold with open-plenum 2-barrel carburetor mounting pad, a Carter BBD carburetor, and associated air cleaner, linkage and plumbing changes. Also installed on these export 2-barrel engines was a slightly hotter camshaft (244° duration rather than 240°), and a distributor with modified advance curves. This engine, rated at 160 bhp (162 PS; 119 kW), was popular in Central and South America, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Driveability characteristics were generally superior to those of the 1-barrel engine, but to avoid cutting into sales of the more expensive V8 engine, this 2-barrel setup was not offered in the North American market. Of particular note is the automatic choke design found in this export 2-barrel setup. Most Chrysler products used remote automatic chokes, with a bimetal coil spring mounted on the exhaust manifold, exposed to exhaust heat and operating a pushrod which rotated the choke lever on the carburetor. The export 2-barrel setup used an integral heat-tube style automatic choke: Air heated by the exhaust manifold was routed to a round bakelite housing on the carburetor air horn, which contained a bimetal spring acting directly on the choke lever.
By the mid-1970s in the North American market, emission control regulations were reducing engine performance at the same time as safety regulations were making cars heavier. An increase in performance was required for the G-engine, so a 2-barrel setup was released for the 1976 model year. This was not the same as the export 2-barrel package; the intake manifold used a throttle-bored plenum rather than an open one, and had provisions for an EGR valve. The carburetor, a Carter BBD similar but not identical to the one used on Chrysler's 318 cu in (5.2 L) V8 engine, used a standard Chrysler-style remote automatic choke. A 2 1⁄4 inches (57 mm) exhaust headpipe was also provided, as well as 2-barrel-specific advance curves in the ignition distributor. This package, called "Super Six" by the marketing division, brought rated horsepower from 100 to 110 hp (101 to 112 PS; 75 to 82 kW) and torque from 170 to 180 lb⋅ft (230 to 244 N⋅m), while improving throttle response and driveability thus maintaining compliance with emission laws.
239 V6 LA =
The 239 cu in (3.9 L) V6 was released in 1987 for use in the Dodge Dakota and a replacement for the older, longer slant-6. It is essentially a six-cylinder version of the 318 V8. Output was 125 hp (93 kW) and 195 lb⋅ft (264 N⋅m) until it was replaced by the Magnum 3.9 starting in 1992. In 1987 it used a two-barrel Holley carburetor and hydraulic tappets. In 1988 it was upgraded with throttle-body fuel injection and roller tappets which it retained until the 1992 Magnum update.
Magnum 3.9 L V6
As the 5.2 L V8 was introduced in 1992, the often-forgotten V6 version of the Magnum engine became available in the Ram pickup and the more compact Dodge Dakota. Based on the LA-series 239 cu in (3.9 L) V6, the 3.9 L featured the same changes and upgrades as the other Magnum engines. The 3.9 L can be better understood by imagining a 5.2 L V8 with two cylinders removed.
Power increased substantially to 180 hp at 4,400 rpm and from 195 to 220 lb⋅ft at 3,200 rpm, as compared with the previous TBI engine. For 1994, horsepower was reduced to 175 hp, mostly due to the installation of smaller-volume exhaust manifolds; torque ratings remained the same. For 1997, the 3.9 L engine's torque output was increased to 225 lb⋅ft, with a compression ratio of 9.1:1. Firing order was 1-6-5-4-3-2. This engine was last produced for the 2003 Dodge Dakota pickup. Starting in the 2004 model year it was entirely withdrawn from production and replaced with the 3.7 L PowerTech V6 engine.
- 1992–2003 Dodge Dakota
- 1992–2003 Dodge Ram Van/Dodge Ram Wagon
- 1992–2001 Dodge Ram
3.7 L Power Tech V6 =
The Chrysler A engine is a small-block V8 gasoline engine built by Chrysler with polyspherical combustion chambers. It was produced from 1956 until 1967, when it was replaced by the wedge-head LA engine. It is not related to the hemispherical-head Hemi engine of the same era.
The A engine was first released in 1956, and was used exclusively in Plymouths until 1958. The cylinder bore center distance is 4.46 in, larger than the earlier Dodge-based poly engines. The A engine formed the conceptual design basis of its successor, the LA engine.
The 277 was the first A-block engine, produced for 1956 and sharing almost nothing but the basic concepts with other engines built by Chrysler. Bore is 3 3⁄4 in and stroke is 3.13 in (79.5 mm) for a piston displacement of 276.1 cu in (4.5 L). It was replaced by the 301 in 1957, except for in low-priced Plaza models where it continued to be used during the 1957 model year. 301
The Plymouth 301 replaced the 278 in 1957. Its piston displacement is 299.6 cu in (4.9 L), owing to its 3.91 in bore. These dimensions are entirely different from the 1955 Chrysler 301.
The 1956 Plymouth 303 displaces 302.5 cu in (5.0 L) and uses the same connecting rods as the 277; the bore is 3.81 in and the stroke is 3.31 in.
This engine was used in the following vehicles:
- 1956 Dodge Custom Royal (Canadian)
- 1956 Chrysler Windsor (Canadian)
- 1956 Plymouth Fury, 240 bhp (179 kW) with 4-barrel carburetor
- 1957 standard on all 118 in (3,000 mm)-wheelbase Dodges and Plymouths
A 312.5 cu in (5.1 L) version of the A engine called the 313 was produced from 1957 to 1967 primarily for Canadian and export markets. This engine has a bore of 3.88 in and the common 3.31 in stroke, and was used in the following vehicles, amongst others:
- 1957 Canadian Dodge Custom Royal
- 1957–1964 Australian Chrysler Royal
- 1958–1967 standard or available in all Canadian-market Dodges and Plymouths except Valiants, Barracudas, and Darts.
- 1961–1963 Bristol 407
- 1963–1965 Bristol 408 Mark I
The 318 is the most common version of the A engine, produced from 1957 through 1967 when it was replaced in all markets by the LA 318. Only Plymouth used this 318 in 1957 and 1958, but it was shared with the other Chrysler divisions from 1959 on. It displaces 5.2 L; 317.9 cid and has a 3.91 in (99.3 mm) bore and the 3.31 in stroke.
A special 1957-'58 version called the V-800 used two four-barrel carburetors to produce 290 bhp, making it the highest-output A engine. It was used in the 1957 and 1958 Plymouth Fury, but was also an option on Plymouth models lower in the model range.
Bristol Cars introduced the 318 in the Mark II model of their 408 (in 1965) and continued to use it in the succeeding 409 and 410 until 1969. From 1962 until early 1965, Checker used this engine for their Aerobus limousines.
The 326 was launched in 1959. Its actual piston displacement is 325.2 cu in (5.3 L) but it was marketed as a 326 to avoid confusion with the Dodge Red Ram 325. The 326 uses the same 3.31 in stroke as the 318, but with the largest bore of any A engine at 3.95 in. It uses hydraulic tappets, unlike the earlier A engines, and was used in the 1959 Dodge Coronet.
The LA engines are a family of pushrod OHV 90° V-configured gasoline engines built by Chrysler Corporation. It was factory-installed in passenger vehicles, trucks and vans, commercial vehicles, marine and industrial applications from 1964 through 2003. The combustion chambers are wedge-shaped, rather than the polyspherical combustion chambers in the predecessor A engine or the hemispherical combustion chambers in the Chrysler Hemi engine. All versions are made of cast iron, except for the Viper V10 which is aluminum. LA engines have the same 4.46 in bore spacing as the A engines. LA engines were made at Chrysler's Mound Road Engine plant in Detroit, Michigan, as well as plants in Canada and Mexico. The "LA" stands for "Light A", as the older "A" engine it was closely based on was nearly 50 pounds heavier. Willem Weertman, who later became Chief Engineer – Engine Design and Development, was in charge of the conversion. The basic design of the LA engine would go unchanged through the development of the "Magnum" upgrade (1992-1993) and into the 2000s with changes to enhance power and efficiency.
The 273 cu in (4.5 L) was the first LA engine, beginning model year 1964 and offered through 1969, rated at 180 hp (134 kW). It had a bore and stroke of 3.625 in × 3.31 in (92.1 mm × 84.1 mm). It had a mechanical solid lifter valvetrain until 1968 when hydraulic lifters were introduced; hydraulic lifters generally make for a quieter valvetrain. The reciprocating assembly included a cast or forged steel crankshaft, drop forged steel connecting rods and cast aluminum pistons. The valvetrain consisted of a cast nodular iron camshaft, solid or hydraulic lifters, solid pushrods and shaft-mounted, malleable iron rocker arms (stamped steel on later hydraulic-cam engines). These actuated the overhead steel intake and exhaust valves. The cylinder heads featured wedge-shaped combustion chambers with a single intake and a single exhaust valve for each cylinder. Spark plugs were located in the side of the cylinder head, between the exhaust ports.
A high performance 235 hp (175 kW) was offered 1965-'67, this was standard in the Barracuda Formula S model and optional in all other compact models excluding station wagons. It featured a 4-bbl. carburetor and matching intake manifold, chrome unsilenced air cleaner with callout sticker, longer-duration and higher-lift camshaft and stronger valve springs, 10.5:1 compression ratio, special black wrinkle valve covers with cast aluminum appliques, and a low-restriction exhaust system with a 2.5 in (64 mm) exhaust pipe, collector-type Y-junction, and exposed resonator. In 1965 (only) the muffler was of "straight through" construction.
A special version was also available in 1966 only - it used a 0.5 in (12.7 mm) lift solid-lifter camshaft, fabricated-steel-tube exhaust, and a Holley 4-barrel carburetor, producing 275 hp (205 kW) (1 hp/cu in). It was available in the Dodge Dart only, and the car so equipped was called the "D-Dart", a reference to its classification in NHRA D-stock for drag racing, which was the car's only intended purpose.
The LA 318 was a 318 cu in (5.2 L) relative of the A 318. Like the A 318, it has a bore & stroke of 3.91 in (99.3 mm) X 3.31 in. It appeared shortly after the 273, in 1967, and proved tremendously successful. The LA engine was available until 1991 when it was superseded by the Magnum version (See below). It used hydraulic lifters and a two barrel carburetor for most of its production, though four-barrel Carter Thermo-Quad and Rochester Quadrajet carburetors were used in police applications starting in 1978. The 318 received roller lifters and a fast-burn cylinder head in 1985. Throttle-body electronic fuel injection was factory equipment on the 1981-1983 Imperial. From 1988 to 1991, another throttle-body fuel injection system was used for truck and van applications.
In the mid-1960s, Chrysler decided to adapt the 318 cu in (5.2 L) small block V8 into a lightweight, high output engine equally suited for drag strip or street performance use. Its block was bored out to 4.04 in (102.6 mm) but 3.31 in (84.1 mm) stroke left unchanged, resulting in the 340 cu in (5.6 L) engine introduced for the 1968 model year. Anticipating higher loads resulting from racing operation, the engineers fitted a forged shot peened steel crankshaft instead of the cast nodular iron unit used in the 318. This also included shot peened and forged pushrods, connecting rods and pistons. A 4-barrel carburetor was mated to a high-rise, dual plane intake manifold feeding high-flow cylinder heads that are still considered among the best of that era. Its big ports used 2.02 in (51 mm) intake and 1.60 in (41 mm) exhaust valves. An aggressive cam was fitted to take advantage of the much better breathing top end. The 1968 4-speed cars got an even hotter cam, but it was discontinued for 1969, where both automatic and manual cars shared the same cam. The engine was equipped with hydraulic lifters and two bolt main bearing caps, leading some to initially underestimate the 340's potential. The 1968-'71 340's compression ratio was 10.5:1, placing it near the limit of what was possible on pump gasoline during that era. The 340 also used additional heavy-duty parts, such as a double-row roller timing chain and sump-mounted windage tray. Power output was officially stated as 275 hp (205 kW) gross for the 4 barrel.
In 1970, Chrysler offered a special Six-Pack version of the 340 with triple 2-barrel carburetors rated at 290 hp (216 kW) gross that was specific to Challenger TA and Cuda AAR models. This version featured a heavy duty short block with additional webbing to allow for aftermarket installed 4 bolt main bearing caps. The application-specific cylinder heads featured relocated intake pushrod passages with offset rocker arms that allowed the pushrods to be moved away from the intake ports, which could improve airflow if the pushrod-clearance "hump" was ground away from the intake port by the end user. An aluminum intake manifold mounted three Holley carburetors, and a dual points ignition system was fitted.
The combination of rising gasoline prices and insurance company crackdown on high-performance vehicles saw the relatively expensive 340 detuned and phased out. It remained a high performance engine through 1971, but was de-tuned in 1972 with the introduction of low compression (8.5:1) small valve heads, and by mid-year, a cast nodular iron crankshaft, and a variety of other emissions related changes. For the 1974 model year it was replaced by the 360 cu in (5.9 L) engine.
The LA 360 cu in (5.9 L) has a bore and stroke of 4 in × 3.58 in (101.6 mm × 90.9 mm). It was released in 1971 with a two barrel carburetor. The 360 used the large intake port 340 heads with a smaller intake valve of 1.88 in (48 mm). In 1974, with the introduction of the code E58 4-BBl dual exhaust version, at 245 hp (183 kW) SAE net, became the most powerful LA engine with the end of 340 production. Power started dropping from 1975 on as more emission controls were added resulting with the 1980 E58 engine only producing 185 hp (138 kW) SAE net. Starting with 1981, the 360 was exclusively used in Dodge trucks and vans.
The 1978-1979 Li'l Red Express truck used a special high-performance 360 4-barrel engine with factory production code EH1, and was the fastest American made vehicle from 0–100 mph (0–161 km/h) for those years. The EH1 was a modified version of the E58 360 police engine (E58) producing 255 hp (190 kW) net at 3800 rpm due in part, that as it was installed in a "truck", and not a car, it did not have to utilize catalytic converters which allowed for a free-flowing exhaust system. Some prototypes for the EH1 featured Mopar Performance W2 heads, although the production units had the standard 360 heads. Some police package cars came from the factory with a steel crank and h-beam rods. There was also a "lean burn" version of the 360. The LA360 was replaced in 1993 by the 5.9 Magnum, which shared some design parameters with the LA360, however the majority of its components were different.
Magnum 5.2 L V8
The Magnum 5.2 L, released in 1992, was an evolutionary development of the 318 cu in (5.2 L) 'LA' engine with the same displacement. The 5.2 L was the first of the Magnum upgraded engines, followed in 1993 by the 5.9 L V8 and the 3.9 L V6.
At the time of its introduction, the 5.2 L Magnum created 230 hp (172 kW) at 4,100 rpm and 295 lb⋅ft at 3,000 rpm. Production of this engine lasted until 2003, when it was completely replaced by the newer 4.7 L
- Engine Type: 90° V-8 OHV 2 valves per cylinder
- Bore & Stroke: 3.91 in × 3.31 in
- Displacement: 318 cu in (5.2 L)
- Firing Order: 1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2
- Compression Ratio: 9.1:1 due to 62cc combustion chambers of Magnum heads
- Lubrication: Pressure Feed - Full Flow Filtration
- Engine Oil Capacity: 5 US quarts (4.7 L) with Filter
- Cooling System: Liquid - Forced Circulation - Ethylene Glycol Mixture
Magnum Engine Technical information
The Magnum engine is a direct descendant of the Chrysler LA engine, which began with the 273 cu in (4.5 L) V8 in 1964. While the Magnum 3.9, Magnum 5.2, and Magnum 5.9 (1992-up) engines were significantly based on the 239, the 318, and the 360 — respectively — many of the parts will not directly interchange and the Magnums are not technically LA engines; the only major parts that are actually unchanged are the connecting rods.
The cylinder block remained basically the same. It was still a V-shaped, 90-degree design made of cast iron. The crankshaft, located to the bottom of the block by five main bearing caps, was cast nodular iron, and the eight connecting rods were forged steel. The pistons were cast aluminum, with a hypereutectic design. Cylinders were numbered from the front of the engine to the rear; cylinders 1, 3, 5 and 7 were found on the left (driver side) bank, or "bank 1", with the even numbers on the other bank.
Coolant passages were located between the cylinders. The gerotor-type oil pump was located at the bottom rear of the engine, and provided oil to both the crankshaft main bearings and the cylinder heads (via the lifters and pushrods, as opposed to a drilled passage on LA engines). Chrysler's engineers also redesigned the oil seals on the crankshaft to improve anti-leak seal performance. The oil pan was also made from thicker steel, and was installed with a more leak-resistant silicone-rubber gasket.
Gasoline was supplied to the intake manifold through a pair of steel rails that fed eight Bosch-type, top-fed, electronically actuated fuel injectors; there was one injector located in each intake runner. Each cylinder had its own injector, thus making the fuel system a "multi-point" type. Fuel pressure was regulated by a vacuum-controlled pressure regulator, located on the return side of the second fuel rail. Excess fuel was thereafter delivered back to the fuel tank. (Later versions had the regulator and filter mounted at the in-tank pump).
To support the new fuel system, the intake manifold was of a new design. Known colloquially as the "beer keg" or "kegger" manifold, the part was shaped like half of a beer barrel lying longitudinally atop the center of the V-shaped engine block. The intake runners, which supplied the fuel and air to each cylinder, fed each of the intake ports in the newly designed cylinder heads. The bolts that secured the intake manifold to the cylinder heads were installed at a different angle than those on the older LA engine; they threaded in vertically, rather than at the 45-degree angle of the 1966-up LA.
Air was provided from the air filter intake to the intake manifold by a Holley-designed, aluminum, twin-venturi, mechanically actuated throttle body, which was bolted atop the intake manifold. Each venturi was progressively bored and had a diameter of 50mm. To this unit were mounted the Throttle Position Sensor (TPS), Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor and Idle Air Control (IAC) valve (initially referred to as the "AIS Motor"). A steel cable connected the accelerator pedal inside the vehicle to a mechanical linkage at the side of the throttle body, which acted to open the air intake butterfly valves inside the venturis. During idle these butterfly valves were closed, so a bypass port and the IAC valve were used to control the intake of air.
The cylinder heads were another fundamental change of the Magnum engine, being designed to meet stricter requirements in both power and emissions by increasing efficiency. These heads were cast iron units with new wedge-shaped combustion chambers and high-swirl valve shrouding. Combustion chamber design was most important in these new heads: LA engine cylinder heads were given a full-relief open-chamber design, but the Magnum was engineered with a double-quench closed-chamber type. The higher-flowing intake ports stepped up intake flow dramatically in comparison to the original LA heads, and the exhaust ports improved cylinder evacuation as well. The shape and porting of the chambers allowed for more complete atomization of the air/fuel mixture, as well as contributing to more complete combustion; these virtues allowed for much greater efficiency of the engine as a whole. The intake and exhaust valves were located at the top of each combustion chamber. The valves themselves had shorter, 5/16" diameter stems, to allow for the more aggressive camshaft. Intake valves had a port diameter of 1.92", while exhaust valves were 1.65". with 60cc combustion chambers. Spark plugs were located at the peak of the combustion chambers' wedge, between the exhaust ports; press-in heat shields protected them from the heat of the exhaust manifolds.
Cast iron exhaust manifolds, less restrictive than units found on previous engines, were bolted to the outboard side of each head. The new cylinder heads also featured stud-mounted rocker arms, a change from the shaft-mounted LA arms. This last change was due to the different oiling system of the new engine, as described in the next paragraph. The valve covers on the Magnum have 10 bolts rather than the previous 5, for improved oil sealing. In addition, the valve covers were made of thicker steel than earlier parts, and were installed with a silicone gasket.
The valvetrain was also updated, although it was still based on a single, center-block-located camshaft pushing on hydraulic lifters and pushrods, one for each rocker arm. However, the cast nodular iron camshaft was of the "roller" type, with each lobe acting upon a hydraulic lifter with a roller bearing on the bottom; this made for a quieter, cooler-running valvetrain, but also allowed for a more aggressive valve lift. Each of the lifters acted upon a steel pushrod, which were of the "oil-through" type. This was another change for the Magnum. Because the new pushrods also served to provide oil to the top of the cylinder head, the rockers were changed to the AMC-style, screw-mounted, bridged half-shaft type. The new rockers also had a higher ratio: 1.6:1 compared to 1.5:1 in the LA engine, which increased leverage on the valves. In addition, the oil boss located at the end of the cylinder head on the LA engine was left undrilled, as it was no longer needed. However, the boss itself was left in place, perhaps to cut down on casting and machining costs, and to allow the use of earlier LA heads.
Engine timing was controlled by the all-steel, silent Morse timing chain (some early production engines had double-row roller timing sets), which was located beneath the aluminum timing cover at the front of the engine block. The timing chain sprockets, one each for the camshaft and crankshaft, were all-steel; for the last few years the LA engine came with nylon teeth on the sprockets. At the rear of the camshaft was cut a set of helical gear teeth, these being used to spin the distributor. Mounted to the front of the timing cover was a new-design counter-clockwise-rotation water pump, with much improved flow. Externally, the accessory drive belt was changed to a serpentine system; coupled with an automatic belt tensioner this increased belt life, reduced maintenance and contributed to lower noise and vibration levels.
The ignition system was also all-new for the Magnum. Controlled by a new micro-processor-equipped Single-Board Engine Controller (SBEC, also known as the ECM, or Engine Control Module), the ignition system included a distributor mounted at the rear of the engine. A 36,000-volt ignition coil, usually located at the front right of the engine, provided electrical power to the center of the distributor cap, where a spinning rotor directed the power to each of the individual cylinders' spark plug wires. Ignition dwell, advance and retardation were electronically controlled by the SBEC.
The SBEC controlled the ignition, as well as the opening and closing of the fuel injectors. During cold startup, wide-open throttle and deceleration, it did this based on "open-loop", pre-programmed operating parameters. During normal idle and cruising, it began "closed-loop" operation, during which the module acted based upon inputs from a variety of sensors. The basic sensors that provided input to the SBEC included the Oxygen sensor (O2), Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor, Throttle Position Sensor (TPS), Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor and Coolant Temperature sensor (CTS). The basic actuators controlled by the SBEC's outputs included the fuel injectors, ignition coil and pickup, and the Idle Air Control (IAC) valve. The latter controlled idle characteristics. However, the SBEC also controlled the operation of the charging system, air conditioning system, cruise control and, in some vehicles, transmission shifting. By centralizing control of these systems, the operation of the vehicle was simplified and streamlined.
Emissions output was controlled by several systems. The EGR, or Exhaust Gas Recirculation system, brought exhaust gas from the exhaust stream up to the intake manifold, lowering peak combustion temperatures, the goal being the reduction of NOX emissions. A PCV, or Positive Crankcase Ventilation system, introduced oil vapor and unburnt fuel vapors from the crankcase to the intake, allowing the engine to re-use these as well. Furthermore, gasoline vapors that would normally be released into the atmosphere were captured by the EVAP system, to then be introduced into the engine.
In 1996, the OBD-II on-board diagnostics system was introduced on all passenger vehicles in the United States, as per United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulation. As such, a new engine control computer was developed for vehicles powered by Magnum engines, known as the JTEC. The new Powertrain Control Module was more complex and more intelligent, and added programming meant it could also control automatic transmission and other powertrain functions; its firmware could also be reprogrammed ("reflashed") via the same OBD-II port. With the introduction of the JTEC, the EGR system was dropped from Magnum engines.
Identifying a Magnum engine
The easiest way to differentiate a bare Magnum block from a LA is by checking for the presence of the two crankshaft position sensor mounting bosses on the right rear top of the block, just to the rear of the cylinder head deck surface. Bosses = Magnum.
All Magnum engines were stamped with a unique engine ID number. This was located on a flat impression on the cylinder block's right side, near the oil pan gasket surface. From 1992 to 1998, the ID was 19 digits long. An example would be: 4M5.2LT042312345678 -The "4" is the last digit of the model year of the engine. This example is a 1994. -The "M" stands for "Mound Road", the plant where the engine was assembled. Other characters found here would be "S" for Saltillo, "T" for Trenton and "K" for Toluca. -5.2L has an obvious meaning here: the displacement of the engine in liters. -The seventh character, here a "T", was the usage of the engine. "T" translates to truck usage. -0423 would mean the engine was produced on April 23. -The final eight digits, here shown as "12345678" are the serial number of the engine.
From 1998 to 2003, the engine ID was shortened to only 13 characters. It differed in that engine displacement was given in cubic inches rather than in liters, the usage character was dropped and the serial number was four instead of eight digits long.
To add some confusion, not only was the name Magnum used on Dodge passcar hi-po engines 1967-1970s, and vehicle lines in the late 1970s and 2000s, it was also applied to the 5.7L "Hemi" V8 in pickup trucks (2003+).
PowerTech SOHC V8 engine
Gen 1 Hemi
A hemispherical cylinder head ("hemi-head") gives an efficient combustion chamber with an excellent surface-to-volume ratio, with minimal heat loss to the head, and allows for two large valves. However, a hemi-head allows no more than two valves per cylinder, and these large valves are necessarily heavier than in a multi-valve engine. The intake and exhaust valves lie on opposite sides of the chamber and necessitate a "cross-flow" head design. Since the combustion chamber is a partial hemisphere, a flat-topped piston would yield too low a compression ratio unless a very long stroke is used, so to attain desired compression ratio the piston crown is domed to protrude into the head at top dead center, resulting in a combustion chamber in the shape of the thick peel of half an orange.
The hemi-head design places the spark plug at or near the center of the chamber to promote a strong flame front. However, if the hemi-head hemisphere is of equal diameter to the piston, there is minimal squish for proper turbulence to mix fuel and air thoroughly. Thus, hemi-heads, because of their lack of squish, are more sensitive to fuel octane rating; a given compression ratio will require a higher octane rating to avoid pre-detonation in a hemi engine than in some conventional engine designs such as the wedge and bathtub.
The hemi head always has intake and exhaust valve stems that point in different directions, requiring a large, wide cylinder head and complex rocker arm geometry in both cam-in-block and single overhead cam engines (dual overhead cam engines may not have rocker arms). This adds to the overall width of the engine, limiting the vehicles in which it can be installed.
Significant challenges in the commercialization of engine designs utilizing hemispherical chambers revolved around the valve actuation, specifically how to make it effective, efficient, and reliable at an acceptable cost. This complexity was referenced early in Chrysler's development of their 1950s hemi engine: the head was referred to in company advertising as the Double Rocker Shaft head. WWII
Chrysler developed their first experimental hemi engine for the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt fighter aircraft. The XIV-2220 engine was an inverted V16 rated at 2,500 hp (1,860 kW). The P-47 was already in production with a Pratt & Whitney radial engine when the XIV-2220 flew successfully in trials in 1945 as a possible upgrade, but the war was winding down and it did not go into production. However, the exercise gave Chrysler engineers valuable research and development experience with two-valve hemi combustion chamber dynamics and parameters.
In addition to the aircraft engine, Chrysler and Continental worked together to develop the air-cooled AV-1790-5B V12 Hemi engine used in the M47 Patton tank.
Chrysler applied their military experience with the hemispherical combustion chamber to their first overhead-valve V8 engine, released under the name FirePower, not "Hemi," in 1950 for the 1951 model year. The first version of the FirePower engine had a displacement of 331 cu in (5.4 L) and produced 180 bhp (134.2 kW). Eventually, three of the four Chrysler divisions had its own versions of the FirePower engine, with different displacements and designations, and having almost no parts in common. This lack of commonality was due in part to the three engine versions using different bore pitches (the center-to-center distance between adjacent cylinders). Chrysler and Imperial called their versions the FirePower. DeSoto called theirs the FireDome. Dodge had a smaller version, known as the Red Ram. Only Plymouth didn't have a version, instead retaining the Dodge poly-head engines: there was no Plymouth hemi engine until the 1964 426. Briggs Cunningham used the Chrysler version in some of his race cars for international motor sports. A Chrysler-powered Cunningham C5-R won its class in 1953. Cunningham switched away from these designs in 1959 when Chrysler temporarily abandoned the hemispherical concept in favor of the wedge-head B engine until 1964.
Collectively, the 1951-'58 Hemi engines are now commonly referred to as first-generation Hemi engines, and the group can be identified by the rear-mounted distributor and the spark plugs in a row down the center of wide valve covers.
1951 Plymouth Hemi V6
There were plans in 1951 for a Plymouth Dual Overhead Cam Hemi V6 displacing 235 Cubic Inches designed by Chrysler's Powerplant Research and Engine Design division. It was meant to be a powerful, fuel efficient alternative to Ford's V8 and to replace Plymouth's venerable flathead 6. The Plans were scrapped due to build costs and because of the then unusual design.
Chrysler and Imperial
All Chrysler FirePower engines are oversquare; i.e their bore is larger than their stroke.
This first FirePower engine, used from 1951 to 1955, has a bore of 3.8125 in and a stroke of 3.625 in for a piston displacement of 331 cu in (5.4 L), and a deck height of 10.32" ("low deck"). The bore pitch, shared by all Chrysler FirePower engines, was 4.5625", the largest of any 1st generation hemi engines. Most used a two-barrel carburetor and produced 180 bhp, with the famous exception of the 1955 Chrysler C-300 equipped with dual Carter WCFB four-barrel carburetors and rated at 300 hp.
The 331 engine was used in the following applications:
- 1951–1955 Chrysler New Yorker
- 1951–1954 Chrysler Imperial and 1955 Imperial[a]
- 1951 Chrysler Saratoga (optional)
- 1952 Chrysler Saratoga Club Coupe (optional)
- 1952 Chrysler Imperial Parade Phaeton
- 1955 Chrysler C-300
- The Chrysler air raid siren. At 138 decibels, it is the loudest siren ever made.
The 354, released in 1956, had a bore of 3.9375 in and stroke of 3.625 in, and the same 10.32" low deck height. The 300B engine was rated at 340 bhp, while the New Yorker and Imperial 354 engine configuration produced 280 bhp. For the 300B an optional 355 hp version was available, making it the first American V-8 to be rated at one horsepower per cubic inch. Note that was before 1972, horsepower was SAE gross. After 1972, horsepower is SAE net. The 354 was also modified. The hemi was optimized for heavy-duty truck service. These were available with one or two four-barrel carburetors, and were offered in Dodge's heaviest duty models as the 'Power Giant V-8' from 1957 through 1959; they were the largest of four hemi truck engines offered by Dodge in the 1950s. The 354 was also offered in certain models with polyspheric heads rather than hemi heads. The combustion chambers on these had similarities to both hemi and wedge heads, but were closer in weight to wedge heads. Thus, both 354 poly and 354 hemi V-8 engines were variously available in 1957.
The 354 engine was used in the following applications:
- 1956 Chrysler New Yorker
- 1956 Chrysler 300B
- 1956 Imperial Custom & Crown[a]
- 1957 Dodge D-501
- 1957–1959 Dodge C Series Pickup
The 392 raised-deck engine released in 1957 had a 4.00 bore and 3.906 in stroke. The actual displacement is 392.67 cu in. The deck height, at 10.87 in, was 1⁄2 in taller than that of the previous blocks. Because its deck was taller, the heads were cast with wider intake ports so that earlier manifolds could be used with the new heads on the new taller block. For 1958, Chrysler offered the 392 in two configurations: 325 bhp with 9.25:1 compression and 345 bhp with 10:1 compression, both with a single four-barrel carburetor. A dual four-barrel version of the 392 available in the 1957-58 Chrysler 300C & 300D cars was rated at 375 bhp; the 300D, and some marine and industrial engines, used a (now rare) adjustable rocker. An extremely rare option available on the 1958 300D was Bendix "Electrojector" fuel injection, with which the 392 was rated at 390 bhp. Due to reliability problems with the primitive onboard computer which controlled the injection system, however, 15 of the 16 300D cars built with the fuel injection option were recalled and retrofitted with carburetors.
The 392 engine was used in the following applications:
- 1957–1958 Chrysler New Yorker
- 1957–1958 Imperial Custom, Crown, and LeBaron[a]
- 1957 Chrysler 300C
- 1958 Chrysler 300D
- 1958 Facel Vega Excellence (EX)
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, drag racers found the 392 to be a formidable engine and continued to run them competitively into the 1970s. Usual color of the block was silver.
DeSoto's Hemi engines were called Fire Dome.
In 1952, DeSoto introduced its version of the FirePower with a bore of 3.625 in and stroke of 3.344 in, for a displacement of 276.1 cu in (4.5 L). The bore pitch, shared by all DeSoto FirePower engines, was 4.3125 in. Power output was 160 bhp. It was a hot seller, with 50,000 vehicles using the engine until it was replaced in 1954.
An increase in displacement to 290.8 cu in (4.8 L) was made for 1955 by increasing the bore to 3.72 in.
The DeSoto engine was enlarged for 1956 to 329.9 cu in (5.4 L). Bore was the same as the 291 at 3.72 in, but stroke was increased to 3.80 in and a taller (raised-deck) block was used.
Displacement was increased again for 1956 (DeSoto Adventurer only) and 1957 (Firedome and Fireflite models) to 341.1 cu in (5.6 L). Bore was now 3.78 in (96.0 mm) with stroke remaining at 3.80 in. The DeSoto Adventurer produced 343 bhp using dual Carter WCFB four-barrel carburetors—more than one horsepower per cubic inch. The 1956 DeSoto Adventurer was the premiere named high-performance version—the DeSoto equivalent of the Chrysler 300—using dual Carter WCFB four-barrel carburetors. The Adventurer engine for 1956 used a displacement of 341 CID (3.78" bore by 3.80" stroke) and had a compression ratio of 9.5:1, using a special hydraulic camshaft profile.
The largest DeSoto engine for 1957 was the DeSoto Adventurer offering 344.6 cu in (5.6 L) with square bore and stroke dimensions of 3.80 inches. The DeSoto Adventurer used dual Carter WCFB four-barrel carburetors for a rating of 345 bhp, again producing one horsepower per cubic inch utilizing a similar intake manifold to the 1956 341 Adventurer and a similar camshaft. Compression ratio remained at 9.5:1. Dodge
Dodge's Hemi was introduced in 1953 as the Red Ram. Dodge did not have a V8 engine until one was developed specifically for the line in 1953 based on the 1951 Chrysler hemi design, but down-sized for these smaller cars. They have the smallest bore center distance of any hemi engine at 4.1875 in. They do not share any major dimensions or components with the larger Chrysler and DeSoto hemi engines, or the Plymouth A engines. From 1955 to 1958 (see 1956 D500 Dodge D-500 cars and packages: early performance cars)lower performance versions of the Dodge hemi were introduced by substituting less complex poly (single rocker shaft) heads and valve train parts, including one variant only built as a poly (259"). These were used in low-line 1955-58 DeSotos and Dodges, and 1955-56 high-line Plymouths.
Dodge Trucks marketed their version of the Hemi under the name PowerDome
Dodge introduced the 241.3 cu in (4.0 L) engine in 1953. Bore was 3.4375 in and stroke was 3.25 in. With a low compression ratio of 7.0:1 (in 1953 and for the 1954 Meadowbrook), the 241 produced 140 bhp (104 kW). For 1954, the more senior Dodges received 150 bhp thanks to a higher 7.5:1 compression ratio. This engine is not the same as the Plymouth 241, which had polyspheric, not hemi heads. The 241 only lasted two years, being replaced by the 270 for 1955.
The D553 1955/1956 Dodge Red Ram Hemi 270 displaced 270 cu in (4.4 L) and was used in premium 1955 and 1956 Dodge vehicles. Bore was 3.625 in and stroke was 3.25 in. It was not the same as the 270 poly-head. In the Dodge Coronet, running 7.6:1 compression ratio, the 270 produced 183 bhp. In higher trims like the Dodge Royal, the "Super Red Ram" ran the same compression ratio but with a four-barrel carburetor produced 193 bhp.
For 1956, Dodge increased the displacement to 315 cu in (5.2 L) with a longer 3.80 in stroke and a taller raised-deck block and now with a polyspheric heads—no longer a Hemi. But the optional high-performance D-500 version of this engine had a four-barrel carburetor and a larger valved Dodge hemispherical combustion chambered head. Also, a "race only" package called the D-500-1 or DASH 1 was available with a special aluminum dual four barrel intake that sported a pair of Carter WCFB carburetors similar to the ones on the Chrysler 300B and DeSoto Adventurer. This engine utilized the same cylinders heads as the base D-500 model.
The D-501 in 57 was the Chrysler 354 engine, not a Dodge-based engine.
Dodge released a 325 cu in (5.3 L) engine for 1957. The engine used a 3.6875 in bore and 3.80 in stroke. The base engine offering was now a polyspheric chambered head referenced as 'KDS', and a higher performance 325 was offered with hemi heads as the 'KD-500'. Again there was a low volume offering of a 'KD-500-1' with dual four barrel carburetors. All engines now, however, had hydraulic camshafts even though the hemi headed offerings sported "dimples" in the valve covers for mechanical adjuster clearance.
Wedge Big Block
The Chrysler B and RB engines are a series of big-block V8 gasoline engines introduced in 1958 to replace the Chrysler FirePower (first generation Hemi) engines. The B and RB engines are often referred to as "wedge" engines because they use wedge-shaped combustion chambers; this differentiates them from Chrysler's 426 Hemi big block engines that are typically referred to as "Hemi" or "426 Hemi" due to their hemispherical shaped combustion chambers.
Design features of the B and RB engines include 17 capscrews per cylinder head, a cylinder block that extends 3 in (76.2 mm) below the crankshaft centerline, an intake manifold not exposed to crankcase oil on the underside, stamped-steel shaft-mounted rocker arms (race versions used forged steel rockers), and a front-mounted external oil pump driven by the camshaft.
The 'B' series wedge engine was introduced in 1958 with 350 cu in (5.7 L) and 361 cu in (5.9 L) versions. The 361 would continue in production until the end of the series, albeit only for truck installation. The RB ("raised B") arrived one year after the launch of the B series engines, in 383 cu in (6.3 L) and 413 cu in (6.8 L) displacements. Unlike the previous B-engines, which had a 3 3⁄8-inch (85.7 mm) stroke, the RB engines had a 3 3⁄4-inch (95.3 mm) stroke.
For 1960, a "ram induction" system increased the 413's torque up to 495 lb⋅ft (671 N⋅m) on the Chrysler 300F versions.
The last 'B-RB' wedge-headed engine was produced in August 1978, ending the era of Chrysler "big-block" engines.
The 350 cu in (5.7 L) B engine was, along with the 361, the first production B engine, first available in 1958. It had a bore of 4.06 in (103 mm). The 350 is classified as a big block engine. All parts except for the pistons are fully compatible with the 361.
Vehicles using the B 350:
- 1958 DeSoto Firesweep
- 1958 Dodge
- 1958 Plymouth Fury
The 361 cu in B engine also introduced in 1958 was essentially the same as the 350 except with a larger 4 1⁄8-inch (104.8 mm) bore, for an actual displacement of 360.83 cu in (5,913 cc). In 1962, the Dodge Polara 500 came standard with a 305 bhp (227 kW) version of the 361 that had a four-barrel carburetor, dual-point distributor, and dual exhausts. Plymouth called their versions of the early B engine the Commando, variants of which included the Golden Commando and Sonoramic Commando. It produced 305 bhp (227 kW). DeSoto's B engine was named Turboflash and produced 295 bhp (220 kW). The Dodge standard version was a 2-barrel with 295 bhp (220 kW) called the Super Red Ram with an optional variant that was called the D500 and produced 320 bhp (239 kW).
The 361 would last until the end of the series, albeit for trucks only. In its early years, the 305-horsepower 361 was optional on many vehicles, and standard on, among others, the Dodge 880. The 361 had a fuel injected version in 1958 only. Very few of the fuel injected B engines were made and only a handful remain, since most were brought back to the dealer to be fitted with carburetors.
The 383 cu in B engine — not to be confused with the RB version — was essentially a larger bore version of the 350 and 361, using a 4.25 in (108.0 mm) bore for a 383.03 cu in (6,277 cc) displacement. This venerable engine was introduced in 1959. Dodge's version, the D500 had a cross-ram induction manifold and dual 4-barrel carburetors as options. In some Dodge applications, this engine was labeled as the Magnum, while the Plymouth's version was called the Golden Commando. Both came with a dual point distributor in high-performance versions.
The 383 became the standard model Mopar performance engine for the next decade. The big bore allowed for larger 2.08 in (53 mm) intake valves, and the relatively short stroke helped it to be a free-revving engine, as well as a free-breathing one.
Producing a maximum of 330 hp (246 kW; 335 PS) (gross) and 460 lb⋅ft (624 N⋅m) of torque for the 1960 model year, the 383 beat the 392 Hemi that had reached 435 lb⋅ft (590 N⋅m). The 1960 383 engines featured the same basic ram induction system as the Chrysler 300F's 413 RB engines (named Sonoramic Commando when sold in Plymouth form). The later 383 Magnum (starting in 1968) used the 440 Magnum heads, camshaft, and exhaust manifolds. This engine was advertised at 335 hp (250 kW; 340 PS).
The 400 cu in (6.6 L) B engine was introduced in 1972 to replace the venerable 383, and were power-rated via the net (installed) method. Chrysler increased the bore size of the 383 to create the 400. Its bore of 4.342-inch (110.3 mm) was the largest used in any production Chrysler V8 at the date of its introduction. All parts except for the pistons were interchangeable between the 383 and 400.
Crankshafts were of cast iron composition. Three versions of this engine were available: a two-barrel/single exhaust version producing 170 hp (127 kW; 172 PS) at 4,400 rpm with 305 lb⋅ft (414 N⋅m) of torque at 2,400 rpm, a four-barrel/single exhaust version producing 205 hp (153 kW; 208 PS) at 4,400 rpm, and a high performance four-barrel/dual exhaust version rated at 260 hp (194 kW; 264 PS) at 4,800 rpm, 410 lb⋅ft (556 N⋅m) of torque at 3,200 rpm. All three versions used the same 8.2:1 compression ratio. The 400 was used in car, truck, and motorhome chassis. Horsepower and torque ratings gradually declined through the years due to the addition of more federally mandated emissions controls, until all Chrysler passenger vehicle big-block production ceased in 1978. For its last year of production, it only produced 190 hp (142 kW) (although a heavy-duty version was also available).
Due to its large factory bore size, short (compared to RB engines) deck height, and bottom end strength that is greater than any other production B or RB engine due to extra material added around the main bearing caps, 400 B engine blocks have become a popular choice for high-performance engine build ups.
The RB engines, produced from 1959 to 1979, are Raised-Block (taller) versions of the B engines. All RB engines have a 3 3⁄4 in (95.3 mm) stroke, with the bore being the defining factor in engine size. All RB wedge engines share a deck height of 10.725 in (272.4 mm), and were fitted with 6.768 in (171.9 mm) long connecting rods, resulting in a 1.80:1 rod ratio. Bore center distance is 4.8 in (120 mm). All RBs are oversquare.
Not to be confused with the 383 B engine, the 383 RB had a 4 1⁄32-inch (102.4 mm) bore (with the long stroke of 3 3⁄4-inch (95.3 mm)) for a displacement of 383 cu in (6.3 L). It was only available in 1959 and 1960 on the US-built Chrysler Windsors and Saratogas; one of Trenton Engine's lines had been converted to the new RB engine (to make the 413), and demand for the 383 B engine was too high for the remaining line. The solution was to create a 383 RB to fill the gap until the plant figured out how to quickly switch from one block to the other.
Not to be confused with the 383 B engine, the 383 RB had a 4 1⁄32-inch (102.4 mm) bore (with the long stroke of 3 3⁄4-inch (95.3 mm)) for a displacement of 383 cu in (6.3 L). It was only available in 1959 and 1960 on the US-built Chrysler Windsors and Saratogas; one of Trenton Engine's lines had been converted to the new RB engine (to make the 413), and demand for the 383 B engine was too high for the remaining line. The solution was to create a 383 RB to fill the gap until the plant figured out how to quickly switch from one block to the other.
|Model years||Fuel system||Power||Torque||Compression ratio|
|1959–1961||4-Barrel Carburetor||340 hp (254 kW) at 4600 rpm||480 lb⋅ft (651 N⋅m) at 2800 rpm||10.0:1|
|1959||2 × 4-Barrel Carbs||380 hp (283 kW) at 5000 rpm||525 lb⋅ft (712 N⋅m) at 3600 rpm|
|1960–1961||375 hp (280 kW) at 5000 rpm||525 lb⋅ft (712 N⋅m) at 2800 rpm|
|1962-1965||4-Barrel Carb||340 hp (254 kW) at 4600 rpm||480 lb⋅ft (651 N⋅m) at 2800 rpm||10.1:1|
|1962||2 × 4-Barrel Carbs||380 hp (283 kW) at 5000 rpm||480 lb⋅ft (651 N⋅m) at 2800 rpm|
|1963-1965||4-Barrel Carb||360 hp (268 kW) at 4600 rpm||495 lb⋅ft (671 N⋅m) at 2800 rpm|
|1963-1964||2 × 4-Barrel Carbs||390 hp (291 kW) at 4800 rpm||530 lb⋅ft (719 N⋅m) at 3600 rpm|
413 Max Wedge
In 1962, a special version known as the "Max Wedge" was made available for drag racing and street use; this version produced 420 bhp (313 kW) at 5000 rpm.
Not to be confused with the 426 Hemi, the 426 cu in (7.0 L) RB was a wedge-head RB block with a 4.25 in (108 mm) bore. The 426 Wedge served as Chrysler's main performance engine until the introduction of the 426 Hemi. It was initially offered as the "non-catalogued" option S42 in Chryslers (the number of such produced is uncertain), offered with 373 or 385 hp (278 or 287 kW) via a single 4-barrel carburetor (11.0:1 or 12.0:1 compression ratio, respectively), or 413 or 421 hp (308 or 314 kW) via ram-inducted dual 4-barrel carburetors (with the same compression ratios). For 1963, horsepower ratings would slightly increase (see below), and it became optional in B-bodied Dodges and Plymouths. After 1963, it would be used only in Dodges and Plymouths.
A 426 Street Wedge block was also available in 1964 and 1965. It bears little relation to the Max Wedge except for basic architecture and dimensions. The Street Wedge was available only in B-body cars (Plymouth and Dodge) and light-duty Dodge D Series trucks. It was an increased-bore version of the standard New Yorker 413 single 4-barrel engine.
426 Max Wedge
The Max Wedge was a race-only version of the 426 Wedge engine offered from the factory. Known as the Super Stock Plymouth and Ramcharger Dodge, the Max Wedge featured high-flow cylinder heads developed through state-of-the-art (at the time) airflow testing. They had 1⅞-inch exhaust valves, which required the cylinder bores to be notched for clearance. The blocks were a special severe-duty casting with larger oil-feed passages than other RB engines, and the blocks were stress-relieved by the factory. Induction came by means of a cross-ram intake manifold tuned for peak power above 4000 rpm and two Carter AFB-3447SA 4-barrel carburetors. The Max Wedge also included high-flow cast-iron exhaust manifolds that, on the later versions, resembled steel tube headers. The Max Wedge was factory rated at 415 or 425 bhp (309 or 317 kW) (depending on compression), and 480 lb⋅ft (651 N⋅m) at 4400 rpm.
Before the end of the 1963 model year, Chrysler introduced the Stage II Max Wedge with improved combustion chamber design and an improved camshaft. The last performance year for the Max Wedge came in 1964 with the Stage III. The factory-advertised power rating never changed despite the Stage II and III improvements.
The 440 cu in (7.2 L) RB was produced from 1965 until 1978, making it the last version of the Chrysler RB block. It had a light wall construction, precision cast-iron block, with iron heads and a bore of 4.32 in (109.7 mm), for an overall displacement of 440 cu in (7.2 L).
From 1967 to 1971, the high-performance version was rated at 375 bhp (380 PS; 280 kW) (370 bhp (375 PS; 276 kW) in 1971) at 4,600 rpm and 480 lb⋅ft (651 N⋅m) at 3,200 rpm of torque with a single 4-barrel carburetor, and from 1969 to 1971, the highest-output version had an intake setup with 3X2-barrel Holley carburetors ("440 Six Pack" for Dodge, "440 6-BBL." for Plymouth) producing 390 bhp (395 PS; 291 kW) at 4,700 rpm (385 bhp (390 PS; 287 kW) in '71) and 490 lb⋅ft (664 N⋅m) at 3,200 rpm of torque.
In 1972, changes were made to the horsepower ratings of vehicle engines from gross (engine only, without air cleaner, exhaust system, alternator, or other power-consuming components) to net (with alternator, air cleaner, mufflers, and other vehicle equipment installed). The new rating system produced lower, more realistic numbers for any given engine. At the same time, emissions regulations were demanding cleaner exhaust. Engines including the 440 were made with reduced compression, modified cam timing, and other tuning measures to comply with the newly tightened emissions regulations. The 1972 440 produced 335 bhp (250 kW) (gross) at 4400 rpm; the new net rating was 225 hp (168 kW)—which very closely coincided with period German DIN ratings and TÜV measurements.
The high-output 440 (4-barrel/mild cam/dual exhausts) was marketed as the Magnum in Dodges, the Super Commando in Plymouths, and the TNT in Chryslers. From 1972 to 1974 the engine (detuned to run on lead-free gas) was rated at 280 hp (209 kW) net, and dropped in hp each year until 1978, when it was rated at 255 hp (190 kW) (in police specification) and limited to Chrysler New Yorkers, Chrysler Newports, Dodge Monaco Police Pursuits, and Plymouth Fury Police Pursuits. It was also available in marine and heavy-duty commercial applications until that year.
2nd Generation Hemi
The hemispherical head design was revived in 1964. These were the first engines officially designated Hemi, a name Chrysler had trademarked. Chrysler Hemi engines of this generation displaced 426 cu in (7.0 L). Just 11,000 Hemi engines were ultimately produced for consumer sale due to their relatively high cost and the sheer size of the engine bay required to fit it in. The 426 Hemi was nicknamed the "elephant engine" at the time, a reference to its high power, heavy weight and large physical dimensions. Its 10.72 in deck height and 4.80 in (121.9 mm) bore spacing made it the biggest engine in racing at the time.
The 426 Hemi of the 1960s was an engine produced for use in NASCAR, used in a racing version of a Plymouth Belvedere in 1964. It was not initially available to the general buying public. The 426 Hemi was not allowed to compete in NASCAR's 1965 season due to its unavailability in production vehicles sold to the general public and because of complaints by Ford regarding its power. However several special production cars were produced and sold with the 426 Hemi. These were the Dodge Dart and Plymouth Fury later in 1965 included the Dodge Coronet and included aluminum fenders and bumpers for drag racing. However they were sold to the general public. Chrysler introduced the "Street" Hemi in 1966 for its intermediate range of cars and sold the required number of Hemi engines to the public to legitimize its use for NASCAR in 1966. The "Street Hemi" was the similar to the race Hemi but with an inline 2X4-bbl induction system (with automatic choke), lower compression (10.25:1 from 12.5:1) and lower-lift camshaft, with iron exhaust manifolds instead of lighter steel long tube headers.
Although all manufacturers were familiar with multi-valve engines and hemispherical combustion chambers, adding more valves per cylinder, or designing the complex valvetrain needed for a hemispherical chamber were expensive ways of improving the high–revolutions per minute (rpm) breathing of production vehicles. By canting the angle of the NASCAR-mandated two valves per cylinder, significantly larger valves could be used. The Chrysler 426 Hemi and all Chrysler RBs had oversquare bore and strokes. Specifically, the 426 Hemi and 426 Wedge had a bore x stroke of 4 1⁄4 in × 3 3⁄4 in.
The 426 Hemi also was used in NHRA and AHRA drag racing. Its large casting allowed the engine to be overbored and stroked to displacements unattainable in the other engines of the day. Top-fuel racing organizers limited the bore spacing of engines until very recently, when under pressure from Ford and other manufacturers, the bore spacing allowed was increased to 4.90 in —this allows other engines such as the Ford 385 series to begin to compete. The engines based on the old Chrysler design predominate Top Fuel and Funny Car classes due to plentiful parts, large amount of research and development, as well as decades of experience with the problems of the engine's design. In drag racing today, the engine bears little resemblance to any engine produced by Chrysler; it is usually equipped with a large Roots type supercharger and short individual exhaust pipes, and fueled with nitromethane. Yet, this variant is used in Top Fuel, Funny Car, and Pro Modified classes.
The 426 Hemi, in "street Hemi" form, was produced for consumer automobiles from 1965 through 1971. There were many differences between the Hemi and the Wedge-head big-block, including main cross-bolted bearing caps and a different head bolt pattern. There were also many differences between the racing Hemi's and the street Hemi, including but not limited to compression ratio, camshaft, intake manifold, exhaust manifold. Some 1960s NASCAR and NHRA Hemi engines featured magnesium cross-ram intake manifolds and magnesium oil pans in an attempt to reduce the massive weight of the overall engine, along with chain-driven internal dry sump oil systems. Today, aftermarket blocks, heads, intakes, rods and pistons are usually made of aluminum.
The street Hemi version was rated at 425 bhp at 5000 rpm SAE gross and 490 lb⋅ft at 4000 rpm of torque equipped with a pair of four-barrel Carter AFB carburetors. In actual dynamometer testing, it produced 433.5 hp and 472 lb⋅ft of torque in purely stock form. Chrysler's sales literature published both the gross 425 hp and net 350 hp ratings for 1971.
To avoid confusion with earlier (1951–58) and current Hemi engines, the 426 is sometimes called the "2G" or "Gen 2" Hemi.
The street version of the 2G Hemi engine was used (optionally, in all but the last case) in the following vehicles:
- 1966–1970 Dodge Coronet/Plymouth Belvedere
- 1966–1971 Plymouth Satellite
- 1966–1971 Dodge Charger
- 1967–1971 Plymouth GTX
- 1968 Dodge Dart Super Stock
- 1968 Plymouth Barracuda
- 1968–1971 Dodge Super Bee
- 1968–1971 Plymouth Road Runner
- 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona
- 1970 Plymouth Superbird
- 1970–1971 Plymouth Hemi 'Cuda
- 1970–1971 Dodge Challenger
- 1970 Monteverdi Hai 450
8.0 L Magnum V10
As the design for the 5.2 L Magnum V8 was coming together in 1988, consideration was given to the design of a larger V10 iteration, mainly intended for use in Dodge Ram 2500 and 3500 pickups. This was to be Chrysler's first 10-cylinder engine (before the '92 Viper, see below), and can best be understood as a 5.9 L V8 with two cylinders added. This 488 cu in (8.0 L) engine was based on a cast iron block, and was rated for 310 hp (231 kW) at 4,100 rpm and 450 lb⋅ft (610 N⋅m) at 2,400 rpm. Bore and stroke was 4 in × 3.88 in (101.6 mm × 98.6 mm); compression ratio was 8.4:1; firing order was 1-10-9-4-3-6-5-8-7-2. Valve covers were die cast magnesium (AZ91D alloy), rather than stamped steel; this lowered noise levels and made for better gasket sealing.
The 8.0 L Magnum V10 first became available in the 1994 model year Dodge Ram 2500 and 3500 pickups, and it was the most powerful gasoline-burning engine then available in any passenger pickup truck. The engine lasted through the 2003 model year, after which it was discontinued.
- 1994-2003 Dodge Ram 2500/3500 Pickup
The Viper engine is a high-performance naturally aspirated pushrod 2 valves per cylinder 90° V10 engine built by Chrysler for use in the vehicle of the same name. Contents
Production of the V10 engine started at Mound Road Engine before moving to Conner Avenue Assembly, where the Viper itself is built, in May 2001. In addition, the Viper V10 was installed in the Dodge Ram SRT-10, earning the truck the Guinness World Record for fastest production truck (later bettered by an Australian production car; the Holden HSV Maloo that uses the LS2, Corvette engine, into the pickup truck category ). The Dodge Tomahawk concept vehicle also uses this engine. Bitter Cars of Germany produced the Bitter GT1 based on the Lotus Elise GT1 using this engine.
The V10 was also sold to British luxury car manufacturer Bristol Cars: the Bristol Fighter was powered by a modified version of the engine which produced 525 bhp (532 PS; 391 kW), increasing to 550 bhp (558 PS; 410 kW) at high speed due to the ram air effect. In the more powerful Fighter S the engine was tuned to give 628 bhp (637 PS; 468 kW) (660 bhp (669 PS; 492 kW) at high speed). Bristol had also planned to produce the Fighter T, the V10 would have been further modified and turbocharged to produce 1,012 bhp (1,026 PS; 755 kW) at 5600 rpm, slightly more than the advertised 1,001 PS (987 bhp; 736 kW) of the Bugatti Veyron, however Bristol have since stated that no Fighter T models were produced.
SR I (1st Generation)
The Viper V10 is based on the Chrysler LA engine family, and appeared with the Dodge Viper in 1992. It was conceived and prototyped as a Magnum 5.9 with two extra cylinders and a longer stroke of 3.88 in (98.6 mm).
Lamborghini engineers revamped Dodge's cast-iron block V10 engine for the Viper by redesigning the block and heads in aluminium alloy. Prototype blocks were cast by Lamborghini, at the time a Chrysler division.
The first-generation Viper V10 engine had a displacement of 7,990 cc (8.0 L; 487.6 cu in) and produced 400 hp (406 PS; 298 kW) at 4600 rpm and 465 lb⋅ft (630 N⋅m) of torque at 3600 rpm.
SR II (2nd Generation)
The second-generation engine, also displacing 8.0 L, produced 450 hp (456 PS; 336 kW) @ 5200 rpm and 490 lb⋅ft (664 N⋅m) of torque @ 3700 rpm. Phase ZB (2003–2010)
ZB I (3rd Generation)
The third-generation engine, introduced on the 2003 Viper, had a displacement of 8,285 cc (8.3 L; 505.6 cu in) with a bore x stroke of 102.4 mm × 100.6 mm (4.03 in × 3.96 in), rated at 510 hp (517 PS; 380 kW) @ 5600 rpm and 535 lb⋅ft (725 N⋅m) @ 4200 rpm of torque after SAE certification in 2006.
ZB II (4th Generation)
For the 2008 Dodge Viper, the engine's output was increased to 600 bhp (608 PS; 447 kW) @ 6100 rpm and 560 lb⋅ft (759 N⋅m) @ 5000 rpm of torque via a slight displacement increase to 8,382 cc (8.4 L; 511.5 cu in) and the use of variable valve timing, among the first utilized in a pushrod engine. The bore was now 4.055 in (103.0 mm), the same as Chrysler's 6.1 L Hemi engine. Phase VX (2012–2017)
VX I (5th Generation)
The 2013 SRT Viper kept roughly the same displacement but further boosted power to 640 hp (649 PS; 477 kW) @ 6150 rpm and 600 lb⋅ft (813 N⋅m) @ 4950 rpm of torque. Since 2015, power was raised up to 645 hp (654 PS; 481 kW) at 6200 rpm. Other Viper V10 vehicles
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